In some U.S. states, e-mail exchanges have become binding contracts. In 2016, the New York courts ruled that the principles of real estate contracts applied to both electronic communications and electronic signatures, provided that “their content and subscription meet all applicable status requirements” and in accordance with the Electronic Signatures and Records Act (ESRA).   In the United Kingdom, the courts decide whether a clause is a condition or a guarantee; For example, an actress`s obligation to organize the opening night of a theatrical production is a condition, but a singer`s obligation to study may be a guarantee.  The statute may also declare a clause or type of clause as a condition or guarantee; For example, the Goods Act 1979 s15A provides that title, description, quality and models are general conditions. The United Kingdom also developed the concept of an “intermediate” term (also called Innomingenannt), first coined in Hong Kong Fir Shipping Co Ltd against Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd . Not all agreements are necessarily contractual, as the parties are generally considered to be legally bound. A “gentlemen`s agreement” should not be legally applicable and “compulsory only in honour.”    In England, some contracts (insurance and partnerships) require the utmost good faith, while others may require good faith (employment contracts and agency). Most English treaties do not need good faith, provided the law is respected.
However, there is a global concept of “legitimate trust.” Statements contained in a contract cannot be confirmed if the court finds that the statements are subjective or advertising. English courts may balance the emphasis or relative knowledge to determine whether a declaration is applicable under the contract. In the English Case of Bannerman/White, the Tribunal upheld a refusal of the sulphur-treated hops, as the purchaser expressly expressed the importance of this requirement. Relative knowledge of the parties may also be a factor, as in the English case Bissett/Wilkinson, where the court found no misrepresentation when a seller stated that the sale of arable land would carry 2000 sheep if dealt with by a team; the buyer was considered competent enough to accept or reject the seller`s opinion. Trade agreements assume that the parties intend to be legally bound, unless the parties explicitly state otherwise, as in a contractual document.